The purpose of this monograph is to describe recent developments in mathematical modeling and mathematical analysis of certain problems arising from cell biology. Cancer cells and their growth via several stages are of particular interest. To describe these events, multi-scale models are applied, involving continuously distributed environment variables and several components related to particles. Hybrid simulations are also carried out, using discretization of environment variables and the Monte Carlo method for the principal particle variables. Rigorous mathematical foundations are the bases of these tools.The monograph is composed of four chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with modeling, while the last one is devoted to mathematical analysis. The first chapter deals with molecular dynamics occurring at the early stage of cancer invasion. A pathway network model based on a biological scenario is constructed, and then its mathematical structures are determined. In the second chapter mathematical modeling is introduced, overviewing several biological insights, using partial differential equations. Transport and gradient are the main factors, and several models are introduced including the Keller?Segel systems. The third chapter treats the method of averaging to model the movement of particles, based on mean field theories, employing deterministic and stochastic approaches. Then appropriate parameters for stochastic simulations are examined. The segment model is finally proposed as an application. In the fourth chapter, thermodynamic features of these models and how these structures are applied in mathematical analysis are examined, that is, negative chemotaxis, parabolic systems with non-local term accounting for chemical reactions, mass-conservative reaction-diffusion systems, and competitive systems of chemotaxis. The monograph concludes with the method of the weak scaling limit applied to the Smoluchowski?Poisson equation.
Mean field approximation has been adopted to describe macroscopic phenomena from microscopic overviews. It is still in progress; fluid mechanics, gauge theory, plasma physics, quantum chemistry, mathematical oncology, non-equilibirum thermodynamics. spite of such a wide range of scientific areas that are concerned with the mean field theory, a unified study of its mathematical structure has not been discussed explicitly in the open literature. The benefit of this point of view on nonlinear problems should have significant impact on future research, as will be seen from the underlying features of self-assembly or bottom-up self-organization which is to be illustrated in a unified way. The aim of this book is to formulate the variational and hierarchical aspects of the equations that arise in the mean field theory from macroscopic profiles to microscopic principles, from dynamics to equilibrium, and from biological models to models that arise from chemistry and physics.
This book presents new developments in non-local mathematical modeling and mathematical analysis on the behavior of solutions with novel technical tools. Theoretical backgrounds in mechanics, thermo-dynamics, game theory, and theoretical biology are examined in details. It starts off with a review and summary of the basic ideas of mathematical modeling frequently used in the sciences and engineering. The authors then employ a number of models in bio-science and material science to demonstrate applications, and provide recent advanced studies, both on deterministic non-local partial differential equations and on some of their stochastic counterparts used in engineering. Mathematical models applied in engineering, chemistry, and biology are subject to conservation laws. For instance, decrease or increase in thermodynamic quantities and non-local partial differential equations, associated with the conserved physical quantities as parameters. These present novel mathematical objects are engaged with rich mathematical structures, in accordance with the interactions between species or individuals, self-organization, pattern formation, hysteresis. These models are based on various laws of physics, such as mechanics of continuum, electro-magnetic theory, and thermodynamics. This is why many areas of mathematics, calculus of variation, dynamical systems, integrable systems, blow-up analysis, and energy methods are indispensable in understanding and analyzing these phenomena.
This book aims for researchers and upper grade students in mathematics, engineering, physics, economics, and biology.
Since 2002, the Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry has proposed "Interface Oral Health Science" as a major theme for next-generation dental research. That theme is based on the following new concept: healthy oral fu- tion is maintained by biological and biomechanical harmony among three s- tems: (1) oral tissues (host); (2) parasitic microorganisms of the oral cavity (parasites); and (3) biomaterials. The concept implies that oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and temporomandibular disorders should be interpreted as "interface disorders" that result from disruption of the intact int- face among these systems. The uniqueness of this concept rests on the fact that it not only encompasses the field of dentistry and dental medicine, but also expands the common ground shared with other fields, including medicine, ag- culture, material science, engineering, and pharmacology. We aim to promote advances in dental research and to activate collaboration with related fields by putting interface oral health science into practice. On this basis, we have already organized the 1st and 2nd International Symposiums for Interface Oral Health Science, which included inspiring special lectures, symposiums, poster pres- tations, and other discussions. The contents of the two symposiums were p- lished as monographs entitled Interface Oral Health Science in 2005 and 2007. The 3rd International Symposium was held in January 2009 as part of this project.
This book presents original papers reflecting topics featured at the international symposium entitled "Fusion of Mathematics and Biology" and organized by the editor of the book. The symposium, held in October 2020 at Osaka University in Japan, was the core event for the final year of the research project entitled "Establishing International Research Networks of Mathematical Oncology." The project had been carried out since April 2015 as part of the Core-to-Core Program of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). In this book, the editor presents collaborative research from prestigious organizations in France, the UK, and the USA. By utilizing their individual strengths and realizing the fusion of life science and mathematical science, the project achieved a combination of mathematical analysis, verification by biomedical experiments, and statistical analysis of chemical databases.
Mathematics is sometimes regarded as a universal language. It is a valuable property that everyone can understand beyond the boundaries of culture, religion, and language. This unifying force of mathematics also applies to the various fields of science. Mathematical oncology has two aspects, i.e., data science and mathematical modeling, and definitely helps in the prediction and control of biological phenomena observed in cancer evolution.
The topics addressed in this book represent several methods of applying mathematical modeling to scientific problems in the natural sciences. Furthermore, novel reviews are included that may motivate many mathematicians to become interested in biological research.