This book is the first comprehensive overview and evaluation of the origins, history and current size and condition of all of Iceland's major glaciers (including Vatnajkull, the largest in Europe) at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It is not only illustrated with many beautiful photographs and graphs of recent statistics and scientific data, but is also a collection of historical writings and drawings from annals, sagas, folk tales, diaries, reports, stories and poems, as it presents a unique approach to the study of glaciers on an island in the North Atlantic. Balancing and comparing the world of man with the world of nature, the perceptions of art and culture with the systematic and pragmatic analyses of science, The Glaciers of Iceland present a wide spectrum of readers with a new and stimulating view of the origins, development and possible future of these massive natural phenomena, as well as the study and role of glaciology, within specific time lines and geographical locations. Icelandic glaciers the author argues could prove essential for understanding the current unsettling progress of global warming. The glaciers of Iceland, therefore, aims at presenting to a wide readership an original, historical, cultural and scientific overview of these geophysical features in Iceland while also suggesting increasingly important lessons and models for man's future interaction with the world's glaciers as a whole.
Mean field approximation has been adopted to describe macroscopic phenomena from microscopic overviews. It is still in progress; fluid mechanics, gauge theory, plasma physics, quantum chemistry, mathematical oncology, non-equilibirum thermodynamics. spite of such a wide range of scientific areas that are concerned with the mean field theory, a unified study of its mathematical structure has not been discussed explicitly in the open literature. The benefit of this point of view on nonlinear problems should have significant impact on future research, as will be seen from the underlying features of self-assembly or bottom-up self-organization which is to be illustrated in a unified way. The aim of this book is to formulate the variational and hierarchical aspects of the equations that arise in the mean field theory from macroscopic profiles to microscopic principles, from dynamics to equilibrium, and from biological models to models that arise from chemistry and physics.
The second volume of the two volumes book is dedicated to various extensions and generalizations of Dyadic (Walsh) analysis and related applications. Considered are dyadic derivatives on Vilenkin groups and various other Abelian and finite non-Abelian groups. Since some important results were developed in former Soviet Union and China, we provide overviews of former work in these countries. Further, we present translations of three papers that were initially published in Chinese. The presentation continues with chapters written by experts in the area presenting discussions of applications of these results in specific tasks in the area of signal processing and system theory.
Efficient computing of related differential operators on contemporary hardware, including graphics processing units, is also considered, which makes the methods and techniques of dyadic analysis and generalizations computationally feasible.
The volume 2 of the book ends with a chapter presenting open problems pointed out by several experts in the area.
Dyadic (Walsh) analysis emerged as a new research area in applied mathematics and engineering in early seventies within attempts to provide answers to demands from practice related to application of spectral analysis of different classes of signals, including audio, video, sonar, and radar signals. In the meantime, it evolved in a mature mathematical discipline with fundamental results and important features providing basis for various applications. The book will provide fundamentals of the area through reprinting carefully selected earlier publications followed by overview of recent results concerning particular subjects in the area written by experts, most of them being founders of the field, and some of their followers. In this way, this first volume of the two volume book offers a rather complete coverage of the development of dyadic Walsh analysis, and provides a deep insight into its mathematical foundations necessary for consideration of generalizations and applications that are the subject of the second volume. The presented theory is quite sufficient to be a basis for further research in the subject area as well as to be applied in solving certain new problems or improving existing solutions for tasks in the areas which motivated development of the dyadic analysis.
The idea of mutual classification of spaces and mappings is one of the main research directions of point set topology. In a systematical way, this book discusses the basic theory of generalized metric spaces by using the mapping method, and summarizes the most important research achievements, particularly those from Chinese scholars, in the theory of spaces and mappings since the 1960s. This book has three chapters, two appendices and a list of more than 400 references. The chapters are "The origin of generalized metric spaces", "Mappings on metric spaces" and "Classes of generalized metric spaces". Graduates or senior undergraduates in mathematics major can use this book as their text to study the theory of generalized metric spaces. Researchers in this field can also use this book as a valuable reference.
A lot of statisticians, actuarial mathematicians, reliability engineers, meteorologists, hydrologists, economists. Business and sport analysts deal with records which play important roles in various fields of statistics and its application. This book enables a reader to check his/her level of understanding of the theory of record values. We give basic formulae which are more important in the theory and present a lot of examples which illustrate the theoretical statements. For a beginner in record statistics, as well as for graduate students the study of our book needs the basic knowledge of the subject. A more advanced reader can use our book to polish his/her knowledge. An upgraded list of bibliography which will help a reader to enrich his/her theoretical knowledge and widen the experience of dealing with ordered observations, is also given in the book.
This book contains a collection of papers presented at the 2nd Tbilisi Salerno Workshop on Mathematical Modeling in March 2015. The focus is on applications of mathematics in physics, electromagnetics, biochemistry and botany, and covers such topics as multimodal logic, fractional calculus, special functions, Fourier-like solutions for PDE's, Rvachev-functions and linear dynamical systems. Special chapters focus on recent uniform analytic descriptions of natural and abstract shapes using the Gielis Formula. The book is intended for a wide audience with interest in application of mathematics to modeling in the natural sciences.
This book offers the reader a new approach to the solvability of boundary value problems with state-dependent impulses and provides recently obtained existence results for state dependent impulsive problems with general linear boundary conditions. It covers fixed-time impulsive boundary value problems both regular and singular and deals with higher order differential equations or with systems that are subject to general linear boundary conditions. We treat state-dependent impulsive boundary value problems, including a new approach giving effective conditions for the solvability of the Dirichlet problem with one state-dependent impulse condition and we show that the depicted approach can be extended to problems with a finite number of state-dependent impulses. We investigate the Sturm-Liouville boundary value problem for a more general right-hand side of a differential equation. Finally, we offer generalizations to higher order differential equations or differential systems subject to general linear boundary conditions.
This monograph covers the existing results regarding Green's functions for differential equations with involutions (DEI).The first part of the book is devoted to the study of the most useful aspects of involutions from an analytical point of view and the associated algebras of differential operators.
The work combines the state of the art regarding the existence and uniqueness results for DEI and new theorems describing how to obtain Green's functions, proving that the theory can be extended to operators (not necessarily involutions) of a similar nature, such as the Hilbert transform or projections, due to their analogous algebraic properties.
Obtaining a Green's function for these operators leads to new results on the qualitative properties of the solutions, in particular maximum and antimaximum principles.
A variety of introductory articles is provided on a wide range of topics, including variational problems on curves and surfaces with anisotropic curvature. Experts in the fields of Riemannian, Lorentzian and contact geometry present state-of-the-art reviews of their topics. The contributions are written on a graduate level and contain extended bibliographies. The ten chapters are the result of various doctoral courses which were held in 2009 and 2010 at universities in Leuven, Serbia, Romania and Spain.
Recent advances in ICT have given rise to new socially disruptive technologies: AmI and the IoT, marking a major technological change which may lead to a drastic transformation of the technological ecosystem in all its complexity, as well as to a major alteration in technology use and thus daily living. Yet no work has systematically explored AmI and the IoT as advances in science and technology (S&T) and sociotechnical visions in light of their nature, underpinning, and practices along with their implications for individual and social wellbeing and for environmental health. AmI and the IoT raise new sets of questions: In what way can we conceptualize such technologies? How can we evaluate their benefits and risks? How should science-based technology and society's politics relate? Are science-based technology and society converging in new ways? It is with such questions that this book is concerned. Positioned within the research field of Science and Technology Studies (STS), which encourages analyses whose approaches are drawn from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, this book amalgamates an investigation of AmI and the IoT technologies based on a unique approach to cross-disciplinary integration; their ethical, social, cultural, political, and environmental effects; and a philosophical analysis and evaluation of the implications of such effects.
An interdisciplinary approach is indeed necessary to understand the complex issue of scientific and technological innovations that S&T are not the only driving forces of the modern, high-tech society, as well as to respond holistically, knowledgeably, reflectively, and critically to the most pressing issues and significant challenges of the modern world.
This book is the first systematic study on how AmI and the IoT applications of scientific discovery link up with other developments in the spheres of the European society, including culture, politics, policy, ethics and ecological philosophy. It situates AmI and the IoT developments and innovations as modernist science-based technology enterprises in a volatile and tense relationship with an inherently contingent, heterogeneous, fractured, conflictual, plural, and reflexive postmodern social world.
The issue's topicality results in a book of interest to a wide readership in science, industry, politics, and policymaking, as well as of recommendation to anyone interested in learning the sociology, philosophy, and history of AmI and the IoT technologies, or to those who would like to better understand some of the ethical, environmental, social, cultural, and political dilemmas to what has been labeled the technologies of the 21st century.
This book brings together an overview of the recent geological history, active earth and biological processes and human settlement of New Zealand. Topics covered include the very active neotectonic and volcanic setting. Mountain geomorphic processes are examined and new ideas about landsliding are highlighted. The exceptional sedimentary archives of the Whanganui Basin are also presented. As one of two land masses that extend into the southern mid-latitudes, New Zealand is ideally located to investigate changes in Southern Ocean climate. Related to this, mountain glaciation in New Zealand is a focus in global climate change debates. New Zealand also has a unique biota due to its long isolation and is the last major land mass to be settled by people. Advances in DNA technologies have revolutionised our understanding of the histories and processes involved. The book provides a comprehensive review of existing work and highlights new ideas and major debates across all these fields.
This book provides a systematic review of many advanced techniques to support the analysis of large collections of documents, ranging from the elementary to the profound, covering all the aspects of the visualization of text documents. Particularly, we start by introducing the fundamental concept of information visualization and visual analysis, followed by a brief survey of the field of text visualization and commonly used data models for converting document into a structured form for visualization. Then we introduce the key visualization techniques including visualizing document similarity, content, sentiments, as well as text corpus exploration system in details with concrete examples in the rest of the book.
The aim of the present book is to give a systematic treatment of the inverse problem of the calculus of variations, i.e. how to recognize whether a system of differential equations can be treated as a system for extremals of a variational functional (the Euler-Lagrange equations), using contemporary geometric methods. Selected applications in geometry, physics, optimal control, and general relativity are also considered. The book includes the following chapters: - Helmholtz conditions and the method of controlled Lagrangians (Bloch, Krupka, Zenkov) - The Sonin-Douglas's problem (Krupka) - Inverse variational problem and symmetry in action: The Ostrogradskyj relativistic third order dynamics (Matsyuk.) - Source forms and their variational completion (Voicu) - First-order variational sequences and the inverse problem of the calculus of variations (Urban, Volna) - The inverse problem of the calculus of variations on Grassmann fibrations (Urban).
This books aims at giving an overview over theoretical and phenomenological aspects of particle astrophysics and particle cosmology. To be of interest for both students and researchers in neighboring fields of physics, it keeps a balance between well established foundations that will not significantly change in the future and a more in-depth treatment of selected subfields in which significant new developments have been taking place recently. These include high energy particle astrophysics, such as cosmic high energy neutrinos, the interplay between detection techniques of dark matter in the laboratory and in high energy cosmic radiation, axion-like particles, and relics of the early Universe such as primordial magnetic fields and gravitational waves. It also contains exercises and thus will be suitable for both introductory and advanced courses in astroparticle physics.
The book provides a comprehensive, detailed and self-contained treatment of the fundamental mathematical properties of problems arising from the motion of viscous incompressible fluids around rotating obstacles. It offers a new approach to this type of problems. We derive the fundamental solution of the steady case and we give pointwise estimates of velocity and its gradient (first and second one). Each chapter is preceded by a thorough discussion of the investigated problems, along with their motivation and the strategy used to solve them.The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students in mathematics, in particular mathematical fluid mechanics and differential equations.
Thurston maps are topological generalizations of postcritically-finite rational maps. This book provides a comprehensive study of ergodic theory of expanding Thurston maps, focusing on the measure of maximal entropy, as well as a more general class of invariant measures, called equilibrium states, and certain weak expansion properties of such maps. In particular, we present equidistribution results for iterated preimages and periodic points with respect to the unique measure of maximal entropy by investigating the number and locations of fixed points. We then use the thermodynamical formalism to establish the existence, uniqueness, and various other properties of the equilibrium state for a Holder continuous potential on the sphere equipped with a visual metric. After studying some weak expansion properties of such maps, we obtain certain large deviation principles for iterated preimages and periodic points under an additional assumption on the critical orbits of the maps. This enables us to obtain general equidistribution results for such points with respect to the equilibrium states under the same assumption.
This book offers the reader an overview of recent developments of integral equations on time scales. It also contains elegant analytical and numerical methods. This book is primarily intended for senior undergraduate students and beginning graduate students of engineering and science courses. The students in mathematical and physical sciences will find many sections of direct relevance. The book contains nine chapters and each chapter is pedagogically organized. This book is specially designed for those who wish to understand integral equations on time scales without having extensive mathematical background.
The 6th International Asia Conference on Industrial Engineering and Management Innovation is sponsored by the Chinese Industrial Engineering Institution and organized by Tianjin University. The conference aims to share and disseminate information on the most recent and relevant researches, theories and practices in industrial and system engineering to promote their development and application in university and enterprises.
Ordered Random Variables have attracted several authors. The basic building block of Ordered Random Variables is Order Statistics which has several applications in extreme value theory and ordered estimation. The general model for ordered random variables, known as Generalized Order Statistics has been introduced relatively recently by Kamps (1995).
This book focuses on the origin of the Gielis curves, surfaces and transformations in the plant sciences. It is shown how these transformations, as a generalization of the Pythagorean Theorem, play an essential role in plant morphology and development. New insights show how plants can be understood as developing mathematical equations, which opens the possibility of directly solving analytically any boundary value problems (stress, diffusion, vibration...) . The book illustrates how form, development and evolution of plants unveil as a musical symphony. The reader will gain insight in how the methods are applicable in many divers scientific and technological fields.
Provides in an organized manner characterizations of univariate probability distributions with many new results published in this area since the 1978 work of Golambos & Kotz "Characterizations of Probability Distributions" (Springer), together with applications of the theory in model fitting and predictions.
For the first time a book has been written on the technological and scientific knowledge, acquired during, buiding , operation and even dismantling of the Superphenix plant. This reactor remains today the most powerful sodium fast breeder reactor operated in the world.(1200 MWe). The last fast breeder reactor operated in the world is BN 800 in Russia that reached his nominal power (800 MWe) in 2016.
Joel Guidez began his career in the field of sodium-cooled fast reactors after leaving Ecole Centrale-Paris, in 1973. He has held various positions at Cadarache, Phenix and Superphenix, including as the head of the thermal hydraulic laboratory conducting tests for Phenix, Superphenix and the EFR European Fast Reactor project. He was also head of the OSIRIS research reactor, located at SACLAY, and of the HFR European Commission reactor, located in the Netherlands and spent two years as nuclear attaché at the French embassy in Berlin. His 2012 book "Phenix: the experience feedback" was translated into English and republished in 2013, and this new book on Superphenix is in the same spirit of thematic analysis of a reactor experience feedback.
Gérard Prêle graduated from the Ecole Centrale-Lyon and entered EDF and the field of sodium-cooled fast reactors in 1983. In 1985 he joined Superphenix, where he was a duty engineer and was later in charge of safety. He has held various positions at Superphenix and Phenix and was a fast neutron reactor (SFR) engineer at the EDF Centre Lyonnais d'Ingénierie (CLI). He worked as Safety Security Environment and Radiation Protection Mission head in Superphenix at the beginning of dismantling and then in the field of PWR for two years. Since 2006 he has been involved in the Gen IV and the SFR/Astrid projects. Today, as an SFR/system and operations expert, one of his major roles is assisting the CEA in the preliminary design of the ASTRID reactor.
As a socially disruptive technology, Ambient Intelligence is ultimately directed towards humans and targeted at the mundane life made of an infinite richness of circumstances that cannot fully be considered and easily be anticipated. Most books, however, focus their analysis on, or deal largely with, the advancement of the technology and its potential only. This book offers a fresh, up-to-date, and holistic approach to Ambient Intelligence. As such, it addresses the interdisciplinary and
transdisciplinary aspects of the rapidly evolving field of Ambient Intelligence by seamlessly integrating and fusing it with artificial intelligence, cognitive science and psychology, social sciences, and
humanities. It is divided into two main parts: Part 1 is about different permutations of enabling technologies as well as core computational capabilities, namely context awareness, implicit and natural interaction, and intelligent behavior. It details the existing and upcoming prerequisite technologies, and elucidates the application and convergence of major current and future computing trends. Part 2 is an accessible review and synthesis of the latest research in the human-directed sciences and computing and how these are intricately interrelated in the realm of Ambient
Intelligence. It deals with the state-of-the-art human-inspired applications which show human-like understanding and exhibit intelligent behavior in relation to a variety of aspects of human functioning - states and processes. It describes and elaborates on the rich potential of Ambient Intelligence from a variety of interrelated perspectives and the plethora of challenges and bottlenecks involved in making Ambient Intelligence a reality, and also discusses the established knowledge and recent discoveries
in the human-directed sciences and their application and convergence in the ambit of Ambient Intelligence computing. This seminal reference work is the most comprehensive of its kind, and will prove invaluable to students, researchers, and professionals across both computing and the human-directed sciences.