Sixty articles arranged in eight thematic sections refer to most recent geological and geophysical results of Antarctic research. The Precambrian of the East Antarctic shield and its geological history is considered as well as sub-ice topography, geophysics and stratigraphy, sedimentology and geophysics of the surrounding Southern Ocean. Particular emphasis is given to the connection of the Antarctic and the surrounding continents when forming part of Gondwana.
The electricity systems of many countries are currently undergoing a process of transformation. Market liberalization has induced major mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector, but has also forced companies to seek out new business areas. Environmental regulations, like the Kyoto process and the European Emissions Trading Scheme, are exposing the sector to external pressure. New technologies - such as renewable energy, combined heat and power (CHP), or "clean coal" technologies - are emerging. Recent worldwide experiences with blackouts have once more put security of supply on the agenda. In Germany, the nuclear phase-out and decommissioning of outdated coal plants will lead to a need for replacement of more than one third of the current generation capacity by 2020. The need for replacement is an extremely important driving force for the current transformation, forcing conventional and new technologies to compete for a role in the future energy supply. The overall transformation of electricity systems is neither driven nor shaped by technical or societal modifications alone, but rather by a rich diversity of processes in the realms of technology, politics, society and economy.
Cette étude est consacrée à l'examen de la théorie du monde social qui se découvre dans la phénoménologie d'Edmund Husserl : est-elle à même de dire les phénomènes sociaux, sur quel mode et avec quels résultats ?Dans un premier moment, nous reconstituons le propos des deux « ontologies sociales » qui pensent le monde social en son essence et en ses essences : d'une part, l'ontologie de la région « monde social », subordonnée à la région de l'« esprit » et élaborée à partir d'une phénoménologie de la communication ; d'autre part, l'ontologie morphologique et eidétique des formes essentielles de communautés sociales. Dans un second moment, nous suivons l'élaboration d'une « sociologie transcendantale » qui reconsidère le rapport de la subjectivité transcendantale au monde social. Nous montrons comment les développements de la théorie de la personne dans la perspective de la phénoménologie génétique, qui semblent nous détourner de la considération de sa socialité, précisent en réalité le rapport du sujet personnel au monde social sous l'angle de sa « mienneté », de l'habitualité et de la familiarité d'une part, et dans la perspective d'une éthique sociale d'autre part. On établit enfin comment, autour de la Krisis, la théorie du monde de la vie fournit le cadre théorique d'une « sociologie transcendantale » qui se développe, sur le fond d'une anthropologie du monde commun, comme théorie de la générativité. De l'ontologie sociale à la sociologie transcendantale, cette recherche est conçue comme une investigation des ressources et des difficultés de la voie par l'ontologie d'accès à la réduction transcendantale, relativement à la question du « social ».Remarquable enquête menée sur l'expérience sociale du sujet, la phénoménologie husserlienne du monde social est susceptible d'intéresser le sociologue comme le philosophe qui s'interroge sur la nature du « social » en général.
This eagerly awaited book offers a unique, comprehensive scientific study of the anatomy of the organ of female sexual pleasure. The authors use macroscopic and microscopic research to guide the reader from the glans, the visible part of the clitoris, where they explore the impressive sensory corpuscles, to the hidden roots of the bulbo-clitoral organ. They show its complexity, its exact location within the external genitalia and its intimate relationship with the urethro-vaginal pyramid.They also remind us that throughout history there has been a failure to understand this organ and explain that this misunderstanding remains the cause of persistent excisions, criminal mutilating practices that have not yet been eradicated.Using extensive iconography, they demonstrate throughout this book that the bulbo-clitoral organ is an exceptional natural treasure that every woman possesses and that every man should know well.
Flexible-electronics is rapidly finding many main-stream applications where low-cost, ruggedness, light weight, unconventional form factors and ease of manufacturability are just some of the important advantages over their conventional rigid-substrate counterparts. Flexible Electronics: Materials and Applications surveys the materials systems and processes that are used to fabricate devices that can be employed in a wide variety of applications, including flexible flat-panel displays, medical image sensors, photovoltaics, and electronic paper. Materials discussed range from polymeric semiconductors to nanotube transparent conductors, highlighting the important characteristics of each system and their target applications. An overview of the performance benchmarks for the different materials is given in order to allow a direct comparison of these different technologies. Furthermore, the devices and processes most suitable for given applications in flexible electronics are identified.
Topics covered include:
An overview and history of flexible electronics
Novel materials for solution-processable thin-film electronic devices and their properties
Low-temperature processing of conventional materials and devices on plastic foils
Novel techniques, such as printing and roll-to-roll processing, for large-area flexible electronics manufacturing
Materials and device physics relevant to flexible electronics
Device integration on flexible substrates
Mechanical and electronic characteristics for thin-film transistors and nano-scale transparent conductors on flexible platforms
Applications towards flexible displays, sensors, actuators, solar energy, radio-frequency identification, and micro-electro-mechanical systems
Written by leading researchers in the field, Flexible Electronics: Materials and Applications serves as a reference for researchers, engineers, and students interested in the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of these exciting materials and emerging applications.
This book explores and highlights the fertile interaction between logic and operator algebras, which in recent years has led to the resolution of several long-standing open problems on C*-algebras. The interplay between logic and operator algebras (C*-algebras, in particular) is relatively young and the author is at the forefront of this interaction. The deep level of scholarship contained in these pages is evident and opens doors to operator algebraists interested in learning about the set-theoretic methods relevant to their field, as well as to set-theorists interested in expanding their view to the non-commutative realm of operator algebras. Enough background is included from both subjects to make the book a convenient, self-contained source for students. A fair number of the exercises form an integral part of the text. They are chosen to widen and deepen the material from the corresponding chapters. Some other exercises serve as a warmup for the latter chapters.
Progressive reductions in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research and development of alternative control strategies. Continual control action exerted by a dedicated electronic control unit ensures that best performance in terms of pollutant emissions and power density is married with driveability and diagnostics. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is a way to attain these goals.
This brief describes the functioning of a GDI engine equipped with a common rail (CR) system, and the devices necessary to run test-bench experiments in detail. The text should prove instructive to researchers in engine control and students are recommended to this brief as their first approach to this technology. Later chapters of the brief relate an innovative strategy designed to assist with the engine management system; injection pressure regulation for fuel pressure stabilization in the CR fuel line is proposed and validated by experiment. The resulting control scheme is composed of a feedback integral action and a static model-based feed-forward action, the gains of which are scheduled as a function of fundamental plant parameters. The tuning of closed-loop performance is supported by an analysis of the phase-margin and the sensitivity function. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the control algorithm in regulating the mean-value rail pressure independently from engine working conditions (engine speed and time of injection) with limited design effort.
Authored by a ranking authority in Gaussian harmonic analysis, this book embodies a state-of-the-art entrée at the intersection of two important fields of research: harmonic analysis and probability. The book is intended for a very diverse audience, from graduate students all the way to researchers working in a broad spectrum of areas in analysis. Written with the graduate student in mind, it is assumed that the reader has familiarity with the basics of real analysis as well as with classical harmonic analysis, including Calderón-Zygmund theory; also some knowledge of basic orthogonal polynomials theory would be convenient. The monograph develops the main topics of classical harmonic analysis (semigroups, covering lemmas, maximal functions, Littlewood-Paley functions, spectral multipliers, fractional integrals and fractional derivatives, singular integrals) with respect to the Gaussian measure. The text provide an updated exposition, as self-contained as possible, of all the topics in Gaussian harmonic analysis that up to now are mostly scattered in research papers and sections of books; also an exhaustive bibliography for further reading. Each chapter ends with a section of notes and further results where connections between Gaussian harmonic analysis and other connected fields, points of view and alternative techniques are given. Mathematicians and researchers in several areas will find the breadth and depth of the treatment of the subject highly useful.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
This book provides a concise introduction to convex duality in financial mathematics. Convex duality plays an essential role in dealing with financial problems and involves maximizing concave utility functions and minimizing convex risk measures. Recently, convex and generalized convex dualities have shown to be crucial in the process of the dynamic hedging of contingent claims. Common underlying principles and connections between different perspectives are developed; results are illustrated through graphs and explained heuristically. This book can be used as a reference and is aimed toward graduate students, researchers and practitioners in mathematics, finance, economics, and optimization. Topics include: Markowitz portfolio theory, growth portfolio theory, fundamental theorem of asset pricing emphasizing the duality between utility optimization and pricing by martingale measures, risk measures and its dual representation, hedging and super-hedging and its relationship with linear programming duality and the duality relationship in dynamic hedging of contingent claims
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
Forewords by Claes-Göran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden, and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, TexasNanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials. Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.
The ever increasing emission of carbon dioxide due to rapid industrialization, urbanization, unplanned tourism and alteration of land use pattern is causing unprecedented changes to marine biodiversity. Irrespective of political philosophy, nation, caste, sex and religion, mankind is under the appalling shadow of climate change. Today nature-based approaches for the mitigation of climate change are increasingly accepted as part of the low-cost solution. Thrust has been given by several scientific communities to assess the magnitude and viability of carbon sequestering potential of plants. Coastal producer communities like mangroves, salt marsh grass, seagrass beds, and seaweeds absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis. This carbon known as the `blue carbon' is thus associated with the marine and estuarine ecosystems. However, a number of gaps in our scientific knowledge on blue carbon domain still exist. Molluscs, coral reefs, phytoplankton, which are amongst the important storehouses of carbon, have not been addressed. Very few scientific studies on the carbon stored in these valuable natural vaults have been performed, and no data bank is available on their carbon sequestering capacity on global basis. The methodologies for assessing blue carbon stock also need further standardization so that credit from blue carbon reservoir is accepted by the International bodies in the form of a concrete policy. It is a matter of great appreciation that Conservation International (CI), the International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources (IUCN), and the Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO is collaborating with governments, research institutions, non-governmental and international organizations, and communities around the world to develop management approaches, financial incentives and policy mechanisms for ensuring conservation and restoration of blue carbon ecosystems and implement projects around the world that demonstrate the feasibility of blue carbon accounting, management, and incentive agreements. The present book has critically presented the data bank for each community of blue carbon not merely in the form of text description, but also through case studies that are the outcomes of research projects and pilot programmes.
Taylor's Family Medicine: Principles and Practice, Sixth Edition, is critically acclaimed and widely used by family physicians in the U.S. and abroad. This derivative handbook utilizes that success to address the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal problems and injuries in the primary care setting. Taylor's Musculoskeletal Problems and Injuries: A Handbook covers problems involving all areas of the skeleton and related musculature in both children and adults. Since primary care clinicians manage most sports injuries, athletic injuries are discussed in depth. In addition to sprains, strains, and fractures, chapters cover illnesses affecting the musculoskeletal system--various types of arthritis, fibromyalgia, and the complex regional pain syndrome. This handbook is an essential reference on musculoskeletal problems and injuries that proves itself indispensable to family physicians, general internists, general pediatricians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants.
This book describes concepts, methods and practical techniques for managing projects to develop constructed facilities in the fields of oil & gas, power, infrastructure, architecture and the commercial building industries.
It is addressed to a broad range of professionals willing to improve their management skills and designed to help newcomers to the engineering and construction industry understand how to apply project management to field practice. Also, it makes project management disciplines accessible to experts in technical areas of engineering and construction.
In education, this text is suitable for undergraduate and graduate classes in architecture, engineering and construction management, as well as for specialist and professional courses in project management.
This book provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of the diagnosis and management of retroperitoneal tumors. It highlights current surgical techniques for combined resection and reconstruction of various abdominal and pelvic organs and structures, along with adjuvant therapy. The book consists of three parts: Part 1 summarizes basic knowledge on retroperitoneal tumors and provides a detailed introduction to diagnosis and treatment, while Part 2 focuses on the surgical techniques used for retroperitoneal tumors and describes general procedures for operations on retroperitoneal tumors at different sites. Lastly, Part 3 details the etiology, pathology, evaluation, treatment and prognosis of retroperitoneal tumors according to pathological subtypes. This book is designed as a resource and guide for surgical and medical oncologists working with retroperitoneal tumors.
This book provides a comprehensive, scholarly, and practical account of delirium that will be of value for all doctors and nurses involved in the care of the elderly. It not only offers a state of the art update on delirium, covering its history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment, diagnosis, causes, prevention, and management, but also presents evidence-based and practical information relevant to daily clinical routine. Owing to the complex multifactorial causes of delirium, different aspects of delirium in the elderly are discussed from a variety of perspectives. The book closes by presenting a series of case vignettes, delirium assessment tools and screening scales, and a list of those drugs highly associated with delirium. Delirium is a cognitive disorder characterized by deficits in attention, arousal, consciousness, memory, orientation, perception, speech, and language. It is a common and serious problem among older persons at every healthcare interface. Although it occurs in 10-60% of the older hospitalized population, delirium remains a relatively misunderstood and misdiagnosed condition. This book will be of interest to professionals working in geriatrics, geriatric psychiatry, general psychiatry, or neurology, internists, intensive care unit specialists, and all who care for the elderly in hospitals or the community.
This volume reviews the current state of research on the IgM antibody and its multiple receptors and binding proteins. Interactions of the IgM ligands with these molecules are important for protection against infections as a first line of defense, as well as for regulation of immune responses to pathogens and self-antigens. The book includes up-to-date information on: (i) the phylogeny of three IgM-binding receptors [polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), Fc receptor for both IgA and IgM (Fca/µR), and Fc receptor for IgM only (FcµR)]; (ii) the lymphocyte-restricted distribution and unique ligand-binding activity of FcµR; (iii) the definition and potential function of Fc receptor-like molecule A (FCRLA) as a resident endoplasmic reticulum protein that binds IgM, but also IgG and IgA; (iv) IgM antibody-mediated enhancement of humoral immune responses, highlighting the importance of complement and its receptors, (v) the numerous important roles of IgM natural antibodies in regulation of inflammation. It is an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians alike.